These gemstones include variety of minerals such as peridot, aquamarine, topaz, ruby and emerald, making Pakistan a significant country in the market of gemstones. Hindukush, Himalaya, and Karakorum are home to most of the gemstones and minerals found in Pakistan. Pakistan used to have a dedicated department called 'Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan' that was established in 1979, it unfortunately was shutdown in 1997. Currently a few of number of private organizations are handling this job.
Till 80s, Karachi used to be the biggest market of facet and rough cut gems, later the Quetta and Peshawar became the hub of this market. Recently, trend of Gem exhibition has been seen and in 2012, in an exhibition held in Islamabad, around 200 companies showcased their gemstones.
Gemstones of KPKKPK has 3 large mountain ranges that are Hindukush, Karakoram and Himalayas. These mountains are home to so many different types of precious items. KPK's Bureau of Statistics says that in 2006 alone, 2568 tonnes of baryte and 85 tonnes of corundum were produced. In 2007, 1416 tonnes of quartz was produced. According to them, Swat has reserves of 70 million carats of emerald, Mardan has reserves of 9 million carats of pink topaz and Kohistan has 10 million carats worth of reserves of peridot. Many of them are rarely found in the world.
Gemstones of Tribal AreasThis region is mostly barren and large variety of gemstones are found in these areas including emerald and tourmaline that are found in the north, garnet and quarts that are found in South Waziristan agencies. According to a report, 29759 tons of quartz was produced 2004 alone.
Gemstones of Gilgit-BaltistanHimalayas, Hindukush, and Karakoram are three mountain ranges of this area. These ranges are home to a large amount of minerals and gem stones. In Swat, pale green-to-green colored emeralds are foud in talc-carbonate schist. In Hunza, pink-to-red crystals of ruby are found. In Neelam Valley rubies of high quality are also found.
Gemstones of BalochistanBalochistan covers 44% of land of Pakistan and it is the largest province of Pakistan. It is covered by rugged mountain ranges that include Makran, Sulaiman, Toba Kakar and Kirthar. Gemstones found in Balochistan include emerald, apatite, sapphire, agate, tourmaline, ruby, topaz, turquoise, lapis lazuli, quartz, garnet, and peridot.